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Bill of lading (b/l), consignment - document that carrier issues for a cargo receiver. It also confirms ownership right for shipped cargo. It has the most significant importance in shipping services and international trade.
Bill of lading has several functions, as it acts as the following documents:
All functions of bill of lading work together and are provided by the same requisites, included in one document form.
Telex-release - a letter of instruction to the agent in the country of cargo discharge from an agent in the country of the shipper, confirming that the original bill of lading with wet seals are collected in the office of agent-sender. Also shipper gives the consignee instructions for cargo issue without original bills of lading presentation in the destination country. Telex release may be made only for nominal bills of lading.
Seaway bill - a kind of the bill of lading, which exists only in electronic form in the carrier system and is not issued in print form. If the parties agree to issue this type of bill of lading, they have to understand that the carrier must deliver the goods to the consignee, as soon as he so requests. The only reason to refuse from cargo release can be non-paid freight to carrier.
Switch b/l - second copy of the bill of lading, which is issued in the following cases:
loss of the first packet;
change of the destination country, consignee, consignor;
consignor gives the following instructions.
CARGO INSURANCE NECESSARITYTransportation (freight) cargo is carried on a contractual basis, the national transport legislation and international transport conventions. The responsibility assumed by freight forwarding companies, clearly defined and limited.
This is the professional responsibility, and not the cargo, insured carriers, freight forwarders in their favor. The carrier, receiving a commission for the portion of the proceeds of the cargo can not be responsible for property risks in the amount of the total turnover of the owner.
The following are cases in which the carrier (forwarder) shall not legally responsible for loss or damage to cargo.
- Effects of force majeure
- Danger or accident at sea
- Carrying out rescue operations, rescue people
- The fire on the vessel, which arose through no fault of the carrier
- Navigational errors
- Other circumstances that have arisen through no fault of the carrier, its employees or agents
In addition, the maritime general rules: - the carrier's liability is limited in most cases, the sum of 2 SDR (> 2.50 U.S. dollars) per 1 kg of gross weight or 500 SDR for each box;
- when the sea carrier announces general average owner must pay a deposit of the cost of their rescue vessel. Otherwise, the goods may not be issued;
- the collision by the fault of both sides, the sea carrier may demand an expenditure of cargo, which accounts for this carrier.
International road transport - The carrier shall be exempt from liability if there are circumstances he could not avoid and the consequences of which he could not prevent (except force majeure, may be classified as armed robbery, accidents caused by third parties, fires, etc.)
In addition, the road transportation general rules:
- the carrier's liability shall not exceed the value of the goods at the time of shipment (the price on the invoice) or a 8.33 GPA (> 12 U.S. dollars) per 1 kg of gross weight;
- when an obstacle to the performance of the contract through no fault of the carrier, the last one shall be entitled to unload the goods at the expense of the cargo.
The other legal regimes and contractual conditions (air freight, warehousing) involve no less stringent limitation of liability. In multimodal transportation liability is determined even more difficult.
For all the above factors, cargo insurance is legitimate and competent solution for all traffic.
Insuring your cargo, you can expect to receive the value of the goods transported, insured by the insurance company upon the occurrence of unanticipated events specified by the contract of insurance.
You will be reimbursed the actual damage caused to the insured cargo as a result of all the risks prescribed in the contract. In addition, offset by losses, expenses and contributions in general average (if maritime transportation) and all expenditure incurred in the rescue of the cargo, reducing losses and costs of determining the amount of damages, if the payment of such expenses is provided by the insurance contract.